The evolutionary biologist Lynn Margulis is best known for her work on the Serial Endosymbiotic Theory (SET) to explain the origins of eukaryotic cells. This article presents key facets in the life of this avant-garde biologist and her work that has changed the way we perceive life on Earth.

The way in which all living things — from microscopic bacteria to human beings to giant sequoia — are related to one another follows a deep and unexpected mathematical pattern, which we now know as the 'tree of life'. This pattern was discovered by naturalists over centuries, but it was Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace who realised that it held the key to understanding the origin and diversity of life on Earth.

Sudha Rajamani is an Assistant Professor at the Indian Institute of Science Education and Research (IISER) at Pune. Her research in the field of Astrobiology focuses on discerning the series of events that might have led to the origin and evolution of early life on prebiotic Earth. In this interview with Reeteka Sud, she shares her experiences and insights on the life of a scientist.

Beginning with an account of the discovery of some fossilized ‘cave bear bones’ in a small valley in 19 th century Germany, this article describes the evolution of our genus Homo and the many species that comprise it. It ends with outlining some suggestions on how the study of human evolution can be integrated with science classrooms.

Nothing in this universe is unchanging. Change may be instantaneous, or may involve time-spans of several hundreds to millions of years. In the context of the Earth's history, we use the term ‘evolution’ to represent the progression of major changes that have shaped the planet; and the gradual development of the planet to the complex form that we know of today.

When we talk about time in a classroom, we often refer to a 40 minute class or the weekly schedule or the annual event of the school. History teachers are fortunate to engage their learners with data, evidence and records of few centuries & millenia before. Geographers & evolutionary biology teachers have the disciplinary advantage of pushing that boundary further to a much bigger timescale.

Through a play on the figure of Rodin's thinker, this 1981 animated film about environmental pollution looks at man's journey from caves to cities.

Change is permanent and as Johann Wolfgang von Goethe said, “We must always change, renew, rejuvenate ourselves; otherwise we harden. Life belongs to the living, and he who lives must be prepared for change.”

We are preparing students for the future i.e. students of today will face the world of work in 2030. One of the challenges is to help students anticipate change at every level. This worksheet is designed to help students anticipate change so that they are thinking individuals and are ready for the changes they are going to face.

Here is Volume 16, No. 3 of Vigyan Prasar's monthly Science magazine Dream 2047 with articles on doing chemistry with computers and other topics.


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