Safety and First Aid

Resource Info

Basic Information

This lesson plan is a blend of creativity and application. Teaching by means of telling a story or using newspapers facilitates easy understanding of concepts such as safety and first aid.

Lesson plan Details

Duration: 
02 hours 40 mins
Introduction: 

 

‘Science’ – It is a subject basically encouraging teachers as well as students to collect information through their direct or indirect observations and testing the same. Because of time constraints and demands of the profession, teachers often adopt the instructional style that requires the least time and preparation. Though children acquire ‘knowledge’ they don’t learn the ‘application’. This lesson plan is an attempt to connect the ‘realistic’ experiences to ‘learning’. ‘Creativity’ is also an integral component of science teaching.  This lesson plan is created by using the ‘Story Telling’ approach and ‘News Paper’ is used as one of the resources to make the ‘learning’ process more interesting.

This lesson plan is an attempt to make the teaching and learning process more interesting by using the ‘story telling’ approach. This is a blend of creativity and application. Teaching by means of telling a story facilitates easy understanding of concepts for children.  Children remember whatever they learn when they apply their knowledge. This approach allows children to think independently as well. This lesson plan comprises of four sessions on the following four topics:

1.       Safety at home

2.       Safety on the road

3.       First Aid

4.       Fire Accidents & Precautionary Measures

Objective: 

Students will learn about accidents, safety aid and precautionary measures.

Steps: 
Session 1: Accidents at home

 

Duration of the session: 40 minutes

Aims & Objectives:

  • Students will describe how accidents happen at home.
  • Students will apply this knowledge to avoid accidents.
  • Students will list reasons for accidents.

Support Material

Keep the following material ready before starting the session. Read and prepare yourself for the ‘story telling’ session.

  • Copies of Resource 1A – (Step 1 – Generating Interest) 
  • One copy of Resource 1B – This is for the teacher’s reference. Read and prepare yourself for the ‘story telling’ session (Step  2)
  •  Copies of Resource 1C – Use this for ‘Assessment’ (Step 3) 
Steps

 

Step 1: Generating Interest

1.       Divide the class into five groups (5 in each group for a class of 25).

2.       Distribute the news paper cuttings given in Resource 1A (one paper cutting for each group) and ask the students to read it.   

Note: There are five paper cuttings given in Resource 1A. You can create your own resources from the local news paper as well. A simple headline will suffice. It should not require much time to do this.

3.       Initiate a discussion.  

  • All of you must have come across similar news headlines. What is it all about?
  • What is an accident?
  • Have you ever met with an accident?
  • Can you recall the experience? How did you feel?
  • In your opinion, why do accidents happen?

Note: Accept all answers. Encourage all the students to take part in the discussion.

Step 2: Story Telling

1.       Start the session with the story which given in Resource 1B.

2.       Ask questions.

For example,

  • Is this safe to stand on a chair/stool without an adult around?
  •  If the box containing cookies falls on the boy, what will happen? 
  • Is it possible for the chair to topple over?

3.   Can you think of situations in the home that often lead to accidents?

Note: We all feel very safe and secure at home. But most of the accidents happen at home only Accidents happen when we cut vegetables, lean too far out of the window to look at the flying kites or birds, climb steps without care, step on sharp objects, walk on a slippery floor, leave sharp edged objects or toys on the floor, come across protruding nails in furniture. Explain all these situations and record their response. Insist that accidents generally happen because of our carelessness. Many accidents could be avoided if we are careful.

Session 2: Road Safety

Duration of the session: 40 minutes

Aims & Objectives:

  •   Students will list reasons for road accidents.
  •   Students will describe how accidents happen on roads.
  •   Students will apply this knowledge to avoid accidents.

Support Material:

Keep the following material ready before starting the session. Read and prepare yourself for the ‘story telling’ session.

  • Hand out Resource 2A ( Step 1: Generating Interest)
  • Copy of Resource 2B for teacher’s reference (Step 2: Storytelling)
  • Copies of Resource 2C (Step 3: Assessment) 
Steps

Step 1: Generating Interest

  1. Ask the students to form two circles.
  2. Show the cut out of the picture given in Resource 2A. You can also create your own handout which depicts a scene that leads to an accident on road. You can even explain the scene if you are good  at acting, or ask the students to enact the scene.
  3. Introduce the topic.
  • What do you see here?
  • What will happen next?
  •  Can you give a reason?

Note: Encourage students to think of other situations like rash driving, breaking traffic rules and regulations, etc.   Accidents happen on roads because of our carelessness. It can often lead to death.

       Step 2: Story Telling

  1. Maintain the same groups of students.
  2. Brief the students on the first part of the story.
  3. Continue the story as given in Resource 2B and stop midway (the clue is given in the Resource) and initiate a discussion.
  4. Ask the students to comment on Ramu’s action.

    If you feel it is wrong, what would  you advice Ramu?

    How do you cross the road?

    What do you check before crossing the road?

    Insist on the following safety measures:

    •  It is not safe to cross the road in between parked vehicles.
    •  We must cross the road near zebra crossing. Roads are meant primarily for vehicles.
    • Always walk on the foot path.
    • Don’t talk on the mobile when you walk or drive. Remind your parents, neighbors and friends about this.

     

    Many deaths are reported across the world everyday because of road accidents. The number is around 3200 per day.

     If you come across any road accident whether it is car /pedestrian/ two wheeler accidents you can help them in number of ways. Remove immediately dangerous items such as inflammable substances, glass etc., and call the ambulance. Don’t leave the victims unattended and walk from the site. Timely help will save many lives.

 

Session 3: First Aid

Duration: 40 minutes

Objectives

  •   Students will recall ‘safety rules’.
  •   Students will explain the meaning of ‘first aid’.
  •   Students will  demonstrate basic first aid for minor accidents

Support Material/Teaching Aids

  • A first aid kit (Step 1: Generating Interest. This can be prepared by the teacher).
  • Copy of the story  – Part III given in Resource 3A ( Step 2: Explanation)
  • Copies of Resource 3B. This resource details the first aid kit that has to be prepared by the teacher.  The teacher can draw the tabular column on the board for assessment)
Steps

Step 1: Generating Interest 

1.       Ask the students to form two concentric circles.

2.       Show the kit and ask them to identify the various items.

Note: Accept all answers. You can make the session more interesting by asking all the students to respond. Ask questions like:

  • When do we use this?
  • Name the materials that are kept inside.

3.       Introduce the topic.  You can begin with: First aid is the quickest and correct medical help given soon after an accident ahead of a medical professional’s help. It can often save a life and reduce injury. 

 Step 2: Explanation

1.       Continue the session with the story given in Resource 3A.

2.       Take a pause (the clue is given in the resource) and ask questions.

  • Do you play cricket?
  • Where do you play?
  • Do you hit the ball when someone is passing by/crossing the playfield?
  • Why don’t you do that?

3.       Complete the story and briefly explain about first aid as applied to minor accidents and injuries. Include the following points in your instructions: 

  • It is important to stay calm and act fast when you give first aid.  Do as required for:
  • Simple cuts/ wounds: wash the cuts or wounds with water. Clean with cotton soaked in antiseptic solution like dettol. Cover cuts with clean bandages or gauze.
  •  Insect stings: remove stinger with a sharp object.  Never pinch it as more of the poison will enter the body. Put ice pack for 10 minutes till burning is reduced.  Apply some soothing cream.
  •  Nose bleeding: allow the person to calm down. Make the person sit down and lean forward. Hold the nose tightly with fingers. Keep it tightly closed like this for 5-10 minutes.

Activity

1.       Divide the class into 3 groups and distribute copies of Resource 3B.

2.        Ask Students to read the instructions first and then enact them. Ask the other groups to observe and assess the participants. 

Note: Teacher should prepare copies of the instructions given in Resource 3B. The kit or materials required to do the enactment should also be kept ready in advance. Tabular columns can be drawn on the board. Give them tips for enactment and encourage them to bring the real life situations. Ask one member from each group to describe the situation and summarize the appropriate first aid briefly to ensure their understanding.

 

Session 4: Fire Accidents

Duration – 40 minutes

Objectives

  • Students will list reasons for fire accidents.
  • Students will describe how fire accidents happen.
  • Students will predict measures to avoid fire accidents.

Teaching Aids

1.       Prepare a handout by using the picture given in Resource 4A. (Step 1: Generating Interest). If there is a fire extinguisher in the school premises, the teacher can make use of it.

2. Teacher reference: Copy of Resource 4B. The teacher should read this in advance.

3. Copies of Resource 4C for assessment.

Steps
 

Step 1: Generating Interest

1.       Ask the students to form two concentric circles.

2.       Show the cutout. Ask questions.

  • Have you seen this before? Where?
  • Have you ever seen people using this?
  • Do you know the name of this device?

3.        Introduce the topic. 

Fire is a good friend when it cooks our food and keeps us warm in winter. But it can also destroy our homes and even reduce an entire forest to a barren land. Fire does not give us a warning before it starts. It may start from a small lit match stick that is carelessly thrown away.

Step 2: Story telling

1.       Continue the story given in Resource 4A (third part).

2.       At the end of the story explain about fire accidents, their causes and the preventive measures.

Note: Avoid fire accidents by being careful, avoid throwing burning match sticks, do not leave burning candle s near children, do not  allow children to play with match sticks.If you are caught in a fire immediately cover your nose and mouth with a cloth. Smoke kills more people than actual fire. Get to the floor and crawl out of the room. If the fire has started due to a short circuit, never use water to put out the fire. If the fire has started due to petrol, use sand to put out the fire. Fire can be put out by removing all the nearby flammable substances, reducing the temperature below the ignition temperature and stopping the supply of air. If your clothes catch fire then immediately drop down to the floor and start rolling on the ground.

 

Notes for teachers

  • Invite someone from the fire department to come and demonstrate a mock fire drill for the children.
  • Divide the children into three different groups and assign one group to take care of all the first aid activities in the class.
  • Call the first group- ‘First Aid Squad’. This group should make a first aid box for the class with the following: Bandage, crepe bandage, absorbent gauze, band-aid, sterile dressings, cotton wool, Dettol or Savlon,  a pair of scissors, Burnol, tincture of iodine, a pair of scissors. 
  • Another group should prepare a chart of ‘Emergency Phone Numbers’ like Police, Fire Station and Ambulance.
  • Next group should remove all the objects (Like sharp nails, stones, protruding piece of wood etc.,) from the class as well as the play ground which could lead accidents.
Assessment: 

Session 1: Accidents at home

  • Give a copy of the work sheet given in Resource 1C and ask the students to complete the exercise.
  • Discuss the answers.

Session 2: Road Safety

  • Distribute the copies of the worksheet given as Resource 2C.
  • Ask the students to complete this at home and discuss it in the class.    

      Session 3: First Aid

      Session 4: Fire accidents
  • Give a copy of Resource 3B to all the children.
  • Discuss the answers.
Personal Reflection: 

Reference Material

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oh99A86HraY –Wheels on bus go round and round song .
  • Visit Ministry of Transports and Highway website. http://morth.nic.in/index2.asp?sublinkid=171&langid=2
  • There are simple animated games given in the website for children
  • Refer class V text books  –  ICSE syllabus
  • Class VI text books of Karnataka State Syllabus book
  • Class V text book of Pondicherry Matriculation syllabus.
  • Class V text book - ICSE syllabus
  • Class V text book - Matriculation syllabus, Pondicherry & Tamil Nadu
  • Class VI text book - Karnataka State Board.

Note for Teachers

You can plan a similar session for fractures as well. You can combine hand and leg fracture, how do we identify whether it is a fracture or not and the first given in both the cases.

Comments

nrawal's picture

Very well prepared lesson plan . This is very interesting and influential way to make students understand the value of safety measures .